Dystonia and cock walk (toe walking) have been associated with manganese (Mn) exposure and with abnormal guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 enzyme function. However, the interaction between Mn and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 function has not been fully elucidated. Divalent cations such as Mn2+ may inhibit the actviity of this enzyme (Fan and Brown 1976; Lista et al., 1976; Suzuki et al., 2004). Thus, future studies looking at the interactions between Mn exposure and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 enzyme function will be needed to parse out the interrelationships between Mn exposure and young onset PD.
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Link to original article in Neurobiology of Aging